life processes class 10 notes: Movement is a sign of life, but sometimes we find living things without any movement, but they have tissues that are not visible to our naked eyes. We all know that living things are made up of organs, organs are made up of tissues, and finally cells, these cells are made up of molecules in a living cell.
There is a continuous movement of molecules, these moments are essential for maintenance processes. These repairs and maintenance processes are called life processes.
Life processes class 10 pdf
Life processes are important to all living things as for a cell to be alive it has to be repaired and maintained all the time. This repair and maintenance of a cell needs a continuous supply of new molecules and disposal of unwanted molecules. This task is achieved by a set of processes called life processes.
It is a live process in which food is obtained by the organism and converted to simpler molecules i.e., nutrients. These are supplied to the cells by the transport system.
It is a life process in which oxygen is obtained by the organism and supplied to the cells by the transport system. Cells utilize some of these nutrients and oxygen to produce energy, some nutrients are used for the synthesis of new materials for growth and repair, while carrying out the above activities cells generate certain molecules which are toxic and to be excreted out of the body.
It is the life process in which living organisms excrete toxic materials out of these cells with the help of a transport system.
It is the life process that helps in the transport of materials in nutrition respiration and excretion. So, nutrition, respiration, transportation, and excretion are life processes.
Essential for an organism to live now under autotrophic nutrition we will see in nutrition in plants
Nutrition in plants
- The plant is autotrophic means -self-feeding. Plants prepare their food by using simple inorganic materials like water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight. This process is called photosynthesis. It takes place inside the leaf.
- We will find the cells with green-colored structures called chloroplasts; this is the exact site of photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide enters the leaf through small pores called stomata.
- It is present on the underside of the leaf. Water is absorbed from the soil by the roots, the exposure of the leaf surface to the sun enables it to get enough sunlight for photosynthesis.
Steps involved in photosynthesis
Step 1– Chlorophyll molecules get activated by the sunlight
Step 2- Activated chlorophylls splits the water into hydrogen and oxygen
Step-3 Hydrogens generated in step 2 are utilized to reduce the carbon dioxide to glucose, plants also need nitrogen to make proteins to build up their bodies atmospheric nitrogen is made into nitrites and nitrates by the soil bacteria they get from the soil in the form of nitrites and nitrates.
Nutrition in human beings is under the topic heterotrophic nutrition.
- Food enters the body through the mouth
- And travels through a long channel which ends at the anus this canal is called the alimentary canal,
- In the mouth the food is ground to a paste by teeth and saliva, saliva is a watery fluid that not only makes the food soft and wet, but it also has an enzyme called salivary amylase which partially digests the sugars.
- Now the food has to reach the stomach through a pipe called the esophagus, the muscles of the esophagus contract alternatively to move the food through it into the stomach.
- The stomach is a large muscular hollow organ in which the food thoroughly mixes it with more digestive juices secreted by gastric glands present in the walls of the stomach
These juices include
- Pepsin-a protein-digesting enzyme,
- Hydrochloric acid- to provide an acidic medium for the proper action of pepsin and
- Mucus- to prevent the damage of the stomach wall by the action of HCl.
At the end of the stomach a pyloric sphincter muscle slowly releases the food into the small intestine, the longest part of the alimentary canal which is highly coiled to get accommodated in the small space it receives:
- Pancreatic juice from the pancreas
- Intestinal juices from the glands in the intestines and
- Bile juice from the liver
Pancreatic juice and intestinal juices contain enzymes like trypsin, lipase, pancreatic amylase, peptidases, and nucleuses
These enzymes do two things one it breaks the fats into smaller droplets providing more surface area for the quick action of enzymes,
Bile makes the intestinal ph level alkaline so that the dilution of fats and carbohydrates is facilitated
These enzymes finally make the :
- Carbohydrates – amylase & disaccharides- simple sugars
- Proteins- trypsin chymotrypsin & peptidases- amino acids and
- Fats(lipids) – bile salt lipase – fatty acids and glycerol
- The inner lining of the small intestine has finger-like projections called villi, where the nutrients derived from indigestion are absorbed into the bloodstream.
- The unabsorbed food is sent into the large intestine where water is absorbed and the rest is excreted out through the anus
- Cellular respiration
- Anaerobic respiration
Now let us see how breathing takes place in living beings.
Breathing is an essential part of respiration; it allows the organisms to obtain oxygen from the surrounding. Human beings have a well-developed respiratory system to absorb oxygen from the atmosphere.
Transportation is the life process that helps in the transport of materials in nutrition respiration and excretion. Heart, blood vessels, and blood are the parts of our transport system.
- The heart is a muscular four-chambered organ that is the size of our fist. It has to do two different jobs. One it has to collect the deoxygenated blood from the body parts and send it to the lungs.
- This is done by the right-side chambers, right atrium and right ventricle of the heart – it has to collect the oxygenated blood from the lungs and supply it to the body parts.
- This is achieved by the left side chambers of the heart but it does both the job simultaneously.
- The left atrium and the right atrium relaxes left atrium collects the blood from the lungs right atrium gets the deoxygenated blood from the body as they contract the left ventricle and the right ventricle expands so that the blood is transferred to them when the left ventricle contracts in its turn the blood is pumped out to the body the right ventricle contracts in its turn pumps the blood to the lungs for oxygenation.
- In higher animals like birds and mammals, the four-chambered heart keeps the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood separate. The circulation of blood through the heart takes place twice, once between the heart and lungs and the second time between the heart and body parts. Hence, this circulation is called double circulation.
2- Human blood
Blood vessels and lymph
The Blood Vessels Present In Our Body Are Arteries, Veins, And Capillaries
Apart from blood, there is one more fluid involved in transportation that is lymph.
It is a colorless fluid similar to the plasma of blood; it is formed by the plasma escaping from the capillaries into the intercellular spaces; this fluid is called lymph. It enters into lymphatic capillaries, joins with lymph vessels and finally opens into law veins.
He does two major works:
- One lymph carries digested and absorbed fat from the intestine and
- To drain excess fluid from extracellular space back into the blood
Cells as a part of their activity produce nitrogenous compounds like urea and uric acid. These are toxic and ought to be excreted out from our bodies. Blood collects these compounds and carries them to the excretory system to filter them out the human excretory system. It consists of:
- A pair of kidneys
- Ureters and
- Urinary bladder and
- Nephrons are the functional units of kidneys that filter the blood. Each nephron consists of a cluster of capillaries and a tube called bowman’s capsule.
- Blood is filtered in this capsule and toxic wastes like urea, uric acid along with water are separated. Certain useful materials like glucose, amino acids, and salts are also filtered and reabsorbed back into the bloodstream
- The water with toxic waste molecules collected in the kidney is called urine; it is sent to the urinary bladder through the urethra.
- Once the bladder is full it creates an urge to urinate, when we relax the bladder muscles to urinate it passes out through the urethra.
Transportation in plants
Plants have slow transport systems because of their low energy. In plants, the materials are mainly transported into pathways
- One food materials from the site of production to the site of storage, that is, from leaf to stem or root, this conductive tissue is called phloem.
- Water and minerals are conducted from root to other body parts through a specialized tissue called xylem
This was all about human life processes.
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