Solid waste management pdf: According to municipal solid waste management rules 2016 “Solid waste” means any garbage or refuse sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility, and other discarded material, resulting from industrial, commercial, mining, and agricultural operations, and community activities.
Solid waste not only involves the solid waste as the name suggests instead the definition is inclusive as it contains semi-solid, liquid, or even gaseous discharge through the solid waste.
Solid waste management pdf
The following data by the ministry of environment is sufficient to demonstrate that urbanization and industrialization have taken a big toll on the environment because of increasing solid waste.
- Not just the amount, but the nature of the solid waste is also changing with an increasing share of plastics and packaging materials.
- According to MoEF&CC, 62 million tonnes of waste is generated annually in the country by the 377 million people living in urban India.
- According to the World Bank, India’s daily waste generation will reach 377,000 tonnes by 2025.
- At the world level if we line up trucks full of garbage it will cover an area of 300miles.
Sources that generate solid waste are the following:
Solid domestic garbage
Solid waste material from various industries
Solid agricultural waste
Plastics, glass, metals, e-waste, etc
Bio-Medical waste from hospitals and dispensaries
Construction waste, sewage sludge
Solid waste from residential areas, institutional/community areas
Solid waste management
It mainly refers to the complete process of collecting, treating, and disposing of solid wastes.
It also includes solutions for recycling items that do not belong to garbage or trash.
so the process of solid waste management is:
Collection– it involves collecting the waste from its sources for which dustbins and mobile waste trucks are used.
Transportation– it involves the transportation of the waste to the location of landfills, or any other demarcated site for that matter.
Sanitary Land Filling: Controlled disposal of wastes on land so that contact between waste and the environment is significantly reduced.
Unsanitary Land Filling:
- Open dumping of wastes,
- Lack of monitoring of the site,
- Absence of methane collection system as it leaches to the ground and contaminates groundwater.
Incineration or combustion: Municipal Solid Wastes are burned at high temperatures.
Composting or Mechanical Biological Treatment: A biological process in which the organic portion of refuse is allowed to decompose under carefully controlled conditions.
Waste to Energy (WtE): It is the process of generating energy in the form of electricity and/or heat from the primary treatment of waste, or the processing of waste into a fuel source. It is a form of energy recovery.
What Are The Issues With Solid Waste Management In India
- With urbanization, the waste is increasing exponentially which paralyzes the whole system’s efficacy.
- In India, the lack of infrastructure because of lacking financial resources leads to incapabilities of urban local bodies,
- Though solid waste management rules mandate source segregation of wastes, it has largely not been followed.
- As the segregation is not proper the process of recycling the waste also has been hampered.
- Also, many waste-to-energy plants are non-operational.
- The only efficient waste collection in India is due to rag pickers that are the poor and marginalized section of society it has its disadvantages
- These disadvantages mainly include health issues.
Need for solid waste management–
If the waste is not disposed of properly it will lead to the following issues:
- Breeding of disease- the place of dumbing becomes the breeding ground of many deadly diseases.
- Hazardous chemicals of waste leach into the soil and lead to contamination in soil and groundwater.
- Burning for disposal will release poisonous gasses into the environment and air pollutants as well.
- To manage solid waste effectively and stabilize the issue of solid waste municipal solid waste (management and handling) rules, 2000 should be followed.
- Segregation of the waste as biodegradable, non biodegradable, and other categories as provided is necessary.
- Compost of biodegradable waste.
- Waste to energy conversion will be a win-win situation for solid waste management.
- Landfills have to be on the outskirts of cities away from residential areas and bioremediation could be used in them to reduce the adverse impacts on surroundings.
- Biomining, bioremediation are also some scientific ways to stop the menace of solid waste.
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