National parks in India pdf: National Parks are one of the types of protected areas. National Parks are declared for protecting biodiversity under Wildlife Protection Act 1972. Their accessibility is restricted and boundaries are fixed. They are declared by the state government. In India, National Parks are IUCN category II protected areas. According to the Wildlife Protection Act 1972, a national park is:
Table of content
- Definition of National Parks
- Facts about National Parks of India
- Objectives behind National Parks
- What is allowed in National Parks and what is not
- Who manages National Parks- national board for wildlife
- Top 10 largest National Parks of india
National parks in india pdf
Section 35- Declaration of National Parks – (1) Whenever it appears to the State Government that an area, whether within a sanctuary or not, is, by reason of its ecological, faunal, floral, Geo-morphological, or zoological association or importance, needed to be constituted as a National Park for the purpose of protection & propagating or developing wildlife therein or its environment, it may, by notification, declare its intention to constitute such area as a National Park.
Facts about National Parks of India
- The first national park of India was declared in British India in 1976 which was called hailey national park. Presently it is located in uttarakhand and known as Corbett national park.
- As of June 2021, 106 National Parks encompassed an area of 40,501.13 km2 (15,637.57 sq mi), under-protected areas of India category II comprising 1.33% of India’s total surface area.
Objectives behind National Parks
- To manage by ecological means
– The aim is to take care and to manage the area by natural means without hampering the biodiversity.
- Conservation of species
– national parks are aimed towards the conservation of various species inhabiting or migrating to that particular environment, including which are threatened, their habitat, regional ecological processes, including their migration routes.
- Ecologically functional populations
-national parks are to maintain viable and ecologically functional populations of native species in a way that contributes towards their integrity with their habitat and helps in creating a resilient environment for them.
- Educational and recreational purposes
– to educate people importance of national parks and biodiversity and make them understand how to conserve it for their sustainable existence.
- Rights of indigenous people
– To take into account the needs and livelihood rights of indigenous people and local communities including the sustainable use of resources for subsistence.
- Economy through tourism
– Through tourism, to contribute to local economies.
Activities that are allowed in National Parks and not (according to Wildlife Protection Act 1972)
- No alteration is allowed of the boundaries of a National Park until it is sanctioned by the central government.
- National parks cannot be reduced to sanctuary.
- No human activity is allowed(except under and in accordance with a permit granted by the Chief Wildlife Warden)
- No grazing of any livestock is permitted inside a National Park
- Scientific research
- Sustainable tourism
- Livelihood activities of indigenous people only in the buffer zone
Who manages National Parks- national board for wildlife
National Board for Wildlife is a statutory organization that is advisory, under the Wildlife Protection Act 1972, headed by the prime minister, it manages all the practices (legal or illegal) including illegal trade, scientific research, approving projects around protected areas etcetera.
Top ten Largest National Parks in India
|NAME||ESTABLISHED||AREA IN SQ KM||STATE||FAMOUS FOR|
|1||Hemis National Park||1981||4400||Ladhak||Snow Leopards|
|2||Desert National Park||1981||3162||Rajasthan||Great Indian Bustard|
|3||Simlipal National Park||1980||2750||Odisha||Royal Bengal Tiger and|
|4||Gangotri National Park||1989||2390||Uttarakhand||Gaumukh Glacier|
|5||Namdapha National Park||1974||1985.23||Arunachal Pradesh||Flora and Fauna|
|6||Khangchendzonga National Park||1977||1784||Sikkim||UNESCO World|
|7||Guru Ghasidas (Sanjay) National Park||1981||1440.71||Chhattisgarh||Tiger|
|8||Gir Forest National Park||1965||1412||Gujarat||Asiatic lion|
|9||Sundarbans National Park||1984||1330.12||West Bengal||UNESCO World|
Royal Bengal Tiger
|10||Jim Corbett National Park||1936||1318.5||Uttarakhand||First national park|
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